Cardiac electrical dyssynchrony is accurately detected by noninvasive electrocardiographic imaging
Laura R. Bear, PhD, Peter R. Huntjens, MSc, Richard D. Walton, PhD, Olivier Bernus, PhD, Ruben Coronel, PhD, MD, Rémi Dubois, PhD
BACKGROUND Poor identification of electrical dyssynchrony is postulated to be a major factor contributing to the low success rate for cardiac resynchronization therapy.
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of body surface mapping and electrocardiographic imaging (ECGi) to detect electrical dyssynchrony noninvasively.
METHODS Langendorff-perfused pig hearts (n 5 11) were suspended in a human torso-shaped tank, with left bundle branch block (LBBB) induced through ablation. Recordings were taken
simultaneously from a 108-electrode epicardial sock and 128 electrodes embedded in the tank surface during sinus rhythm and ventricular pacing. Computed tomography provided electrode and heart positions in the tank. Epicardial unipolar electrograms were reconstructed from torso potentials using ECGi. Dyssynchrony markers from torso potentials (eg, QRS duration) or ECGi (total activation time, interventricular delay [D-LR], and intraventricular markers) were correlated with those recorded from the sock.
RESULTS LBBB was induced (n 5 8), and sock-derived activation maps demonstrated interventricular dyssynchrony (D-LR and total activation time) in all cases (P , .05) and intraventricular
dyssynchrony for complete LBBB (P , .05) compared to normal sinus rhythm. Only D-LR returned to normal with biventricular pacing (P 5 .1). Torso markers increased with large degrees of dyssynchrony, and no reduction was seen during biventricular pacing (P . .05). Although ECGi-derived markers were significantly lower than recorded (P , .05), there was a significant strong linear relationship between ECGi and recorded values. ECGi correctly diagnosed electrical dyssynchrony and interventricular resynchronization in all cases. The latest site of activation was identified to 9.1 6 0.6 mm by ECGi.
CONCLUSION ECGi reliably and accurately detects electrical dyssynchrony, resynchronization by biventricular pacing, and the site of latest activation, providing more information than do body